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They include income generation, soft power, modernization of domestic tertiary education sector, economic competitiveness, need for trained work force, and most importantly a desire to move towards a knowledge or service based economy. Scholars, policy makers, professionals, students and senior decision makers from education, economics, geography, public policy, trade, migration will find that this book challenges some assumptions about crossborder education and provides new insights and information.

Three generations of crossborder higher education: New developments, issues and challenges. Streitwieser Ed. Oxford, UK: Symposium Books. One aspect of internationalization which is particularly important and controversial is crossborder education.

Intercultural Dialogue and Understanding: Implications for Teachers

Academic mobility has moved from people students, faculty, scholars to program twinning, franchise, MOOCs, virtual and provider branch campus, binational universities mobility and now to the development of international education hubs. Crossborder education has gradually shifted from a development cooperation framework, to a partnership model, and now to a commercial and competitiveness model.

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the rationales, score, and scale of the three generations of crossborder education. The first part examines how the multifaceted phenomenon of crossborder education relates to internationalization in general and provides a working definition. The three generations of crossborder education are analyzed in the second part so as to provide a basic understanding of program and provider mobility and the recent positioning of countries as education hubs.

Attention is given to examining the rationales and perspectives of different stakeholders — students, foreign institutions and host country institutions. The last section discusses important emerging issues, challenges, and unintended consequences related to crossborder higher education.

Crossborder education: An analytical framework for program and provider mobility. Smart Ed.

XXI pp. This article presents a number of components that comprise an analytical framework for cross-border education. Included is a discussion of the relationship between cross-border ventures and current trends in globalization and internationalization.

An analysis of the rationales for cross-border ventures and their impacts is included, along with a global survey of the current status of cross-border ventures by region. A typology of cross-border higher education ventures is presented. Transcending borders and traversing boundaries: A systematic review of the literature on transnational, offshore, cross-border, and borderless higher education. The review places emphasis on the development of this field as well as its most cited contributions. The literature derives from the Database of Research on International Education, while the citation data comes from Google Scholar.

The first section describes the growth of the field and its cognitive and institutional structure in terms of keywords, publication types, journals, and topic clusters. The second section provides a review of the most recognized work of this thematic area. Research related to the main themes studied under the label of transnational higher education is discussed. Finally, future directions for research, including methodological issues and substantive concerns, are addressed. Macro-environmental mapping of international branch campus activities of universities worldwide.

University of California, Berkeley. Transnational education: Issues and trends in offshore higher education. New York: Rutledge. Viewing transnational education from economic, political, cultural, technological, governmental, and university levels, the authors predict a slow increase in the transnational education market, and believe quality and accountability of off-shore institutions will become increasingly important. To minimize risk, the off-shoring campus and host country have three options on how they would like to set-up their cross-border distance education operation: distance, partner-supported, or branch campus.

Failure could potentially drain home-campus resources while success could enhance research opportunities and increase finances. The host country is mainly concerned about cultural imperialism and ensuring high-quality academic programs. By keeping cultural imperialism to a minimum and ensuring high academic quality, the host country might gain prestige in their region while attracting and retaining more international and domestic students, creating a knowledge-based economy.

Success for the involved actors relies on the establishment of a strong and understood, mutually agreed upon contract, procedures, and policies. Transnational higher education: A stock take of current activity. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13 3 , Naidoo analyzed secondary data in a number of publications and reports, to assess the growth of transnational higher education TNHE.


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The country analysis indicates that Australia exports more programs than any other country. However, most cross-border tertiary institutions that are wholly owned are from the United States followed closely by British institutions. The article notes that U. Transnational higher education: Why it happens and who benefits? Four rationales explain recent growth in transnational higher education.

The Mutual Understanding perspective highlights the academic, cultural, social, and political bases for engaging in transnational programs. Transnational programs feed students to a source country through transfer between branch and home campuses. Revenue Generation describes income-seeking as a motivation for transnational programs. Capacity Building views transnational education as a means of filling demand for higher education in receiving countries. Despite common perceptions that the benefits of transnational education accrue primarily to source countries, there are wide-ranging impacts that accrue to both receivers and senders.

Teaching in Transnational Higher Education

The international branch campus — Models and trends. The report by OBHE provides information on three distinct models used by institutions establishing branch campuses. Model B uses external funding from governments or private sources. The latest development, Model C, uses facilities provided by the host government and can be found most often in economically advanced countries in the Persian Gulf.

New Governance Model for Transnational Finance

Institutions appear to be increasingly reluctant to absorb the entire cost of establishing a branch campus Model A. This has led to an increased use of Models B and C. Building capacity through cross-border tertiary education. The use of education as a capacity-building, economic development tool is identified as a recent phenomena although little data exists regarding its effectiveness.

Cross-border tertiary education where students, teachers, programs, and institutional providers cross national borders takes several forms. In some instances, partnering with foreign institutions offers an opportunity to offer joint programs or degrees. Other examples of tertiary cross border education involve distance learning. All forms are currently delivered under a variety of contractual arrangements.

The report contains guidelines to be used by countries seeking to benefit from cross-border education. An extensive bibliography concludes the report. C-BERT has identified few references pertaining to this subject heading. Shifting institutional boundaries through cross-border higher education. This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African Portuguese-speaking countries, Brazil, and Europe.

These different regulation contexts allow to analyze how the level of national regulation influences CBHE, how this relates to the shifting boundaries of HEIs, and how the public or private character of the institutions plays a role in influencing boundary shifts.

Problem Statement

This research indicates that shifting boundaries through CBHE are influenced by institutional identities shaped by different rationales and conditioned by local policy contexts. Public universities have refrained from creating campuses abroad or from franchising activities, and their international activities seem driven by academic and cultural rationales. Public polytechnics, more recent than universities, seem more open to embarking on CBHE, suggesting the existence of a malleable identity. Contrary to the public sector, private institutions have created campuses abroad, mainly in African Portuguese-speaking countries, apparently following an economic rationale to guide their CBHE activities.

This report discusses several French higher education initiatives in North Africa and the Middle East. Because of past colonial collections, French institutions have a number of long-standing collaborations in the region, which include dual degree programs, research partnerships, and staff mobility programs, but no full-fledged branch campuses at the writing of the report. The Middle East and North Africa have received attention from French business schools who view them as a way to make up for a stagnant domestic economy.

Risky Business: Effective Planning and Management of Transnational Education

As well, French companies in the region are increasingly relying on native staff rather than expatriates, so there is a growing market for native workers with French qualifications. French business schools agree that Morocco is the most reasonable location for transnational education in North Africa, and there is the possibility that Casablanca may become a business education hub for francophone Africa. The Middle East has also received attention from French institutions as a promising center for student exchange and institutional partnerships. French institutions are also recruiting international students to come to France from a wide range of countries.

Private higher education in India: Status and prospects. This report describes the history, current status, and growth of private higher education in India, including foreign providers, professional programs, and distance learning.